This page is under construction.  Check back for updates. 

While we are re-building this page, you may use this Citation Guide from Battlefield High School.

Special thanks to Battlefield librarian Ms. Tierney for providing this temporary resource to us.

Page under construction- check back for updates.

MLA Citation Format

compiled by Karen Tierney, M.L.I.S
Source: MLA Handbook, 8th Edition, 2016.

The “Core Elements” of an MLA 8 citation, along with their corresponding punctuation marks, 
include the following (in this order):

  1. Authors.
  2. Title of the source.
  3. Title of container,
  4. Other contributors,
  5. Version,
  6. Numbers,
  7. Publisher,
  8. Publication date,
  9. Location.

The appropriate punctuation mark will follow each core element, unless it is the final piece. In this case, 
the punctuation mark would be a period.  

To learn about how to format each core element of an MLA 8 citation, check outEasyBib's MLA 8 Guide
For additional online help with citations, use the Purdue OWL MLA Guide
Working on an annotated bibliography? Look here for help.

MLA Works Cited Page Proofreading Checklist

PRINT RESOURCES
Note: Audio books and eBooks (not from a database) are cited the same way as a print book.

Book (1 Author)
Book (2 Authors)
Book (3+ Authors)
Book (No Author)
Book (Corporate)
Book (Translator/Compiler)
Book (Editor, No Author)
Poem or Short Story in a Book
Article from a Reference Book (Encyclopedia, Dictionary, etc.)
Article from a periodical (journal, magazine,or newspaper)
Reprinted article originally from a scholarly journal
Two or more works by the same author
Reproduction of a painting or sculpture in a book
WEB RESOURCES

Ebook from a database
Article from a database
Entire website
Online encyclopedia
YouTube video
Typical web pages
E-mail (including E-mail interviews)
An Image (Including a Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph)from the web


ADDITIONAL MISCELLANEOUS RESOURCES
Interview conducted by the researcher
Film/Movie

Alphabetizing entries on a Works Cited page
Capitalization of titles
Sample Works Cited page

 Print Resources

Book by one author
Example: Schreiber, Joe. Perry's Killer Playlist. Houghton Mifflin, 2012. 

Explanation:

Author's last name, Author's first name and middle initial.  Title of Book
Name of publishing company, Copyright date.  

In-text citation: (Schreiber 62).
Special notes: Do not list titles (Dr., Sir, Saint, etc.) or degrees (PhD, MA, DDS, etc.) with names.Special name designations (Jr., III, etc.) appear after a comma, after the author's first or middle name whichever is the final name element. 
Use most recent publication date.  Omit throw-aways like Inc., Company, or Press. 

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Book by two authors
Example:

Miranda, Lin-Manuel, and Jeremy McCarter. Hamilton: The Revolution : Being the Complete Libretto of the Broadway Musical, with a True Account of Its Creation, and Concise Remarks on Hip-Hop, the Power of Stories, and the New America. Melcher Media, 2016.

Explanation:

Last name of author of book, First and middle names of author of book, and Full name of second  author. Title of Book. Name of publishing company, Copyright date. 

In-text citation:
(Miranda and McCarter 43).
Special notes: DO NOT reverse the order of the second author's name. Also, list the authors as they are listed on the title page. DO NOT reorder them alphabetically.

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Book by three or more authors
Example:

Macken, Bob, et al. The Rock Music Source Book. Anchor Books, 1980
    

Explanation:

First author's last name, First author's first and middle names, et al. Title of BookName of publishing company, Copyright date.

In-text citation:
(Macken et al. 124).
Special notes: Et al. is an abbreviation for the Latin et alii, which means for "and others."

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Book having no author
Example:

Webster's New Biographical Dictionary.  Merriam-Webster, 1983.

Explanation:

Title of Book.  Name of publishing company, Copyright date.

In-text citation:
(Webster's 235).
Special notes: Only use the first significant word of the title should be used in the parenthetical reference. Omit articles a, an, the.

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Book by a corporate author
Example:

Rolling Stone. U2: The Ultimate Compendium of Interviews, Articles, Facts and Opinions from the Files of the Rolling Stone. Pan, 1995.

Explanation:

Name of corporation that authored the book.  Title of Book.  Name of publishing company, Copyright date.  
 

In-text citation:

(Rolling Stone 152)
Special notes:
Well-known abbreviations may be used to shorten the name of the corporation (ie. Natl for National) in In-Text citations.

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Book with a translator or compiler
Example:

Cervantes, Saavedra M. Don Quixote. Translated by Edith Grossman, Ecco, 2003.

In-text citation:
(Cervantes 132).
Explanation:

Author's last name, Author's first name and middle initial. Title of the Work. Translated by Full name of Translator, Name of publishing company, Copyright date. 

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Book with an editor (no author given)
Example:

Howard, Keith, editor. Korean Pop Music: Riding the Wave.  Global Oriental, 2006.

Explanation:

Last name of book editor, First name of book editor, editor.  Title of Book. Name of publishing company, Copyright date. 

Special notes: Do not abbreviate the word editor. If the book has multiple editors, use editors. and follow the rules for writing author names. 
In-text citation:
(Howard 27).

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Poem or Short Story in a Book 
 Examples:   St. Vincent Millay, Edna. "Dirge Without Music." Selected Poems, edited by Colin Falck, Perennial Classics, 1991, p.79.

Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues" The Oxford Book of American Short Stories, edited by Joyce Carol Oates, Oxford University Press, 1992, pp. 409-39.
 Explanation:  Author. Title of work. Title of Book, editor, publisher, date of publication, location.
 Special Notes: Do not abbreviate the word editor. If the book has multiple editors, use editors. and follow the rules for writing author names. 
 In-text citation  (St. Vincent).
(Baldwin 411).

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 Article from a Reference Book (Encyclopedia, Dictionary, etc.)
 Examples:   "Sforzando." Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. 11th ed., 2003.

"Moody Blues, The." Baker's Student Encyclopedia of Music, 1999.
 Explanation:  Title of article (entry). Title of Reference Book, edition (if listed), date.
 Special notes:  If the reference book is organized alphabetically, do not list the volume or page number.
 In-text citation: ("Sforzando").
("Moody").

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Article from a Periodical (journal, magazine, or newspaper)
Examples:

Thompson, Clive. "Rocking the House: Long Before Spotify and iTunes, the Phonograph Revolutionized the Way We Experience Music." Smithsonian, Jan.-Feb. 2016, 35+.

Jackson, Jennifer. "Purdue Bands and Orchestra's Annual Jazz on the Hill May 1." Purdue Exponent [West Lafayette], 25 Apr. 2016, p. 4.

Explanation:

Last name of author of article, First and middle names of author of article. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical, Date of periodical, page numbers on which the article appears in the periodical. 

In-text citation:
(Thompson 35).
Special notes: If the newspaper is a less well-known or local publication, include the city name in brackets after the title of the newspaper.

The format of the date of the periodical is day first then the month (or abbreviation of the month; consult MLA for correct format) then the year. If there is more than one edition available for that date (as in an early and late edition of a newspaper), identify the edition after the article title.

If the pages on which the article appears are not consecutive, print the beginning page number followed by a + (ie. 12+)

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Reprinted article originally from a scholarly journal (use this format for literary criticism articles)
Example:

Matus, Jill.  "Song of Solomon: Raising Dead Fathers."  Toni Morrison, Manchester University Press, 1998, pp. 72-84. Novels for Students, edited by Marie Rose Napierkowski and Deborah A. Stanley, vol.8, Gale, 2000, pp. 232-6.

Explanation:

Last name of author of article, First and middle names of author of article. "Title of Article." Title of Journal in which Original Article was Published Originally, Publisher of original journal, Date original article was published, Page numbers on which article originally appeared in journal. Name of book in which article was reprinted. edited by Full name of editor of book in which reprint appears, vol. Volume number in which reprinted article appears, Name of book publishing company, Copyright date, Page numbers on which reprinted article appears. 

In-text citation:
(Matus 234).
Special notes: Vol. is an abbreviation for "Volume." The parenthetical reference cites the page numbers for the reprinted article, not the original publication source. In print sources, a page number (preceded by p.) or range of page numbers (preceded by pp.) specifies the location of a text within a container.

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Two or more works by the same author
Example:

Witmer, Scott. Bookings & Gigs.. ABDO, 2010. 

---. Songwriting. ABDO, 2010.

In-text citation:
(Witmer, Bookings 52).
(Witmer, Songwriting 27).
Special Note: On a works cited page, the second work by the same author begins with three dashes and a period. This denotes that the second book was written by the author in the previous entry. When you have more than one work by the same author, you have to distinguish the works in the parenthetical references by adding title abbreviations.

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Reproduction of a Painting or Sculpture in a Book
Example:

Picasso, Pablo.  "The Old Guitarist." 1903, Master Paintings in the Art Institute of Chicago,edited by Laura J. Kozitka and Susan F. Rossen,  Art Institute of Chicago, 1998,  p. 108.

Explanation:

Last name of artist, First name and middle initial or name of artist.  "Title of the Work of Art."  Date work of art was created. Title of Book,  Name of Editor(s),  Publisher, year of publication,  Page number or plate number.

In-text citation:
(Picasso).
Special notes: If you know the date the work was created, it is included after the title.

Provide the name of the institution that houses the artwork followed by the location of the institution if the location is not listed in the name of the institution (e.g. Museo del Prado, Madrid.)

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Online Resources

eBook from a Database
Examples:
Phillips, Winifred. A Composer's Guide to Game Music.  MIT Press, 2014, Google Books,
 books.google.com/books?id=qebUAgAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Composer's+Guide
+to+Game+Music&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjR3b34mIXOAhUINT4KHch9AzsQ6AEIHjAA
#v=onepage&q=Composer's Guide to Game Music&f=false.
Rowell, Rebecca.  YouTube: The Company and It's Founders. ABDO, 2011.  MackinVIA.mackinvia.com/?bookid=2881504.

 

Explanation:

Author's last name, Author's first name and middle initial.  Title of book. Name of publishing 
company, Copyright date, Name of Database or Website.  DOI, URL, or web address.

In-text citation:
(Phillips 122).
(Rowell 32-45).
Special notes: The dates are in day, month, year order.   Do not abbreviate May, June, and July.  
Abbreviate September as Sept.  Abbreviate all other months to the first three letters.  

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Article from a database
 

Koga, Midori, and Jun Nogami. "Developing an Awareness of Core Balance in Music Performance." 
American Music Teacher, Aug.-Sept. 2012, pp. 24+. Fine Arts and Music Collection, doi: GALE|A299885757.

Example:

 

 

Greenblatt, Alan. "Future of the Music Industry." CQ Researcher, vol. 13, no. 41, 21 Nov. 2003, pp. 989-1012, doi: cqresrre2003112100.

Explanation:

Author. "Title." Title of container, Other contributors (translators or editors), Version (edition), Number(vol. and/or no.), Publisher, Publication Date. Name of Database, Location (pages, paragraphs and/or URL, DOI or permalink).

In-text 
citation:
(Koga par.7)
(Webb par. 5)
Special notes: The dates are in day, month, year order.   Do not abbreviate May, June, and July.
Abbreviate September as Sept.  Abbreviate all other months to the first three letters.  

If page numbers are not available, use par. or pars. to denote paragraph numbers. 
Use these in place of the p. or pp. abbreviation.

CQ Researcher 
is the original container for the article, therefore you do not have to name it twice 
in the citation.

URLs define the location of online material. Use digital object identifiers (DOIs),  or 
permalinks when available (such as the Gale Document Number).

Break hyperlinks when adding them to your citation. The URL should not begin on a separate line. You will have to break the text to fit the format.

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Entire Website
Examples:
Hawk, Andy. The Train Wreck Endings. andyhawk.com. Accessed 22 Apr. 2015.
Purple Planet Royalty Free Music. purple-planet.com. Accessed 2 Aug. 2016.
Society for Music Theory. University of Chicago Department of Music, 2012, societymusictheory.org. Accessed 12 July 2016.

 

Explanation:

Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Version number, Name of        institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource 
creation (if available), URL, DOI or permalink. Date of access (if applicable).

In-text citation:
(Hawk)
(Purple)
(Society)
Special notes: The dates are in day, month, year order.   Do not abbreviate May, June, and July.  
Abbreviate September as Sept.  Abbreviate all other months to the first three letters.  

URLs define the location of online material. Use digital object identifiers (DOIs) or 
permalinks when available. 

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Entry in an online encyclopedia
Examples:

Clapp, Stephen. "Ma, Yo-Yo." World Book Advanced. 2016, worldbookonline.com/advanced/article?id=ar723988.
 
"Scala, La." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. Columbia University Press, 2016. General Reference Center GOLD. go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA69231488&v=2.1&u=va_s_075_0290&it=r&p=GRGM&sw=w&asid= 2a89933f2666e750bf8d7672f361b6c8.

Explanation:

Last name of the author of the article, First and middle names of author of the article.  "Title of the article."  Title of the online encyclopedia.  Name of Publisher, date of publication.  DOI, URL, or web address.

In-text citations:
(Clapp).
(Scala par.2).
Special notes: A publisher's name may be omitted in the case of a Web site with a title that is essentially the same as the publisher. 

If page numbers are not available, use par. or pars. to denote paragraph numbers. Use these in place of the p. or pp. abbreviation.

URLs define the location of online material. Use digital object identifiers (DOIs) or permalinks when available.

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YouTube video 
Examples:
 "BHS Marching Bobcats @ JMU 1st Place Quad A17 Oct 2015." YouTube, The Newman Files, 18 Oct. 2015, youtube.com/watch?v=-cQo0RehjlA.
 "Librarians Do GaGa." YouTube, Athenasbanquet, 27 May 2010, youtube.com/watch?v=a_uzUh1VT98.
Saint-Saens, Camille. "La Danse Macabre." YouTube, DistantMirrors, 7 May 2012, youtube.com/watch?v=YyknBTm_YyM.

 

Explanation:

Author of content.  Name of Video.  YouTube,  Name of uploader, Date of postURL.

In-text citation:
(BHS).
(Librarians).
(Saint-Saens).
Special notes: If the author’s name is the same as the uploader, only cite the author once. If the author is different from the uploader, cite the author’s name before the title.

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Typical Web Pages
Examples:
Nevue, David.  “How to Copyright Music." Music Biz Academy, Midnight Rain ProductionsMar. 2010, musicbizacademy.com/internet/how2copyright.htm.
"How to Add Music to PowerPoint."  WikiHow. Jan 2016, wikihow.com/Add-Music-to-PowerPoint.
Explanation:

Last name of author of page, First and middle names of author of article. "Title of page." Title of 
Web site, 
Date Web page was last updated, DOI, URL or web address.

In-text citations:
(Nevue).
("How to").
Special notes: The Publisher or website sponsor is usually found at the bottom of the page. The publisher's name may be omitted if it is essentially the same as the title of the website, or if the publisher is not involved in producing the works it makes available (eg. YouTube or WordPress).

The dates are in day, month, year order.   Do not abbreviate May, June, and July.  Abbreviate September as Sept.  Abbreviate all other months to the first three letters.  

In-Text citations using titles, such as ("How to Add Music to PowerPoint") can be shortened to a piece of the title  ("How to") as long as the resulting parenthetical is unique from other sources used in the paper.

You will not have page numbers in your parenthetical citations unless they are given.  This is unlikely.

URLs define the location of online material. Use digital object identifiers (DOIs) or permalinks when available. 

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E-mail (including E-mail interviews)
Examples:

Casel, Nitanju Bolade. "Re: Sweet Honey in the Rock." Received by Francis Vogel, 10 May 2016.

Parsons, Hilary. "Re: GMU Jazz Festival." Received by Joe MacLennan, 28 Aug. 2014.

Explanation:

Last name of author, First name and middle initial of author. "Subject Line of Message." Received by First and Last Name of Recipient, date message was sent.

Special notes: Use standard capitalization.
In-text citations:
(Casel).
(Parsons).

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An Image (Including a Painting, Sculpture or Photograph) from the Web
Example:

Barbey, Bruno. Gnawa musicians. 01 Jan. 2004, Magnum Photos,elibrary.bigchalk.com/elibweb
/elib/do/documentset=search&searchType=natural&groupid=1&requestid=lib_standard&resultid=
1&edition=&ts=F6C3331FE0625878CC64616AA0A29195_1470668817543&start=1&publicationId
=&urn=urn%3Abigchalk%3AUS%3BBCLib%3Bdocument%3B124085303#citation. Accessed 8 Aug. 2016.

Richard J. The Buskers. 4 June 2016, National Geographic, http://yourshot.nationalgeographic.com/photos/8485419/. Accessed 8 Aug. 2016.

Sundogak. "The B-52s Backdrop Wallpaper." 2013, Fanart.tv, fanart.tv/artist/127f591a-7e27-4435-92db-0780f219f3a1/b-52s-the/. Accessed 17 Jun. 2016.

Explanation:

Last name of artist, First name and middle initial or name of artist.  Title of the work.  Date the work of art was created, Name of institution that houses or owns the work (if available). Name of website or database, DOI, URL or web address.  Date website was accessed. 

In-text citations:
(Barbey).
(Richard).
(Sundogak).
Special Notes
Provide the artist's name, the work of art italicized, the date of creation, the institution and city where the work is housed. Follow this initial entry with the name of the Website in italics, the medium of publication, and the date of access.

If the work is cited on the web only, then provide the name of the artist, the title of the work, the medium
of the work, and then follow the citation format for a website. 

If the work is posted via a username, use that username for the author (see 2nd and 3rd examples).

Images from royalty free clip art, such as the clip art available in Microsoft Word or Power Point, do not need to be cited. Works in the public domain technically do not need to be cited either, but doing so can help your readers find the original work so that they may better understand your references.

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Additional Miscellaneous Resources
 

Interview conducted by the researcher
Examples:
Armstrong, Billie Joe.  Personal interview.  7 Mar. 2015. 
Williams, John.  Telephone interview.  23 Aug. 2009.

 

Explanation:

Last name, first name of person interviewed.  Kind of interview.  Date of interview.

In-text citations:
(Armstrong).
(Williams).
Special notes: The dates are in day, month, year order.   Do not abbreviate May, June, and July.  Abbreviate September as Sept.  Abbreviate all other months to the first three letters.  

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Capitalization of Titles
Most words in a title are capitalized, and the first word is always capitalized, but…
DO NOT Capitalize these four categories of words if they appear in the middle of a title:

1.) articles: (a, an, the)  (e.g. Battle of the Bands)

2.) prepositions: (such as above, through, in, out, of, around, etc.) (e.g. Getting the Most out of Makerspaces to Make Musical Instruments)

3.) coordinating conjunctions: (and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet)  (e.g. Beautiful Music for Ugly Children)

4.) the word to as part of a verb infinitive: (to Run, to Eat, etc.) (e.g. Learn to Speak Music)


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Film/Movie
Example:

Mr. Holland's Opus. Directed by Stephen Herek, performances by Richard Dreyfuss, Glenne Headly, Jay Thomas, and Olympia Dukakis, Polygram, 1999.

Explanation:

Title of film.  Dir. Director's name.  Perf. Names of key performers.  Name of production studio.  Copyright date of film. 

In-text citation:
(Mr. Holland's).
Special notes: Include the name of the director, the film studio or distributor, and the release year.

If you wish to write about a movie or T.V. show without focusing on particular actors or directors, begin with the film’s name. If you wish to list multiple participants, you can still do so.

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Alphabetizing Entries on a Works Cited Page
In most cases, alphabetize Works Cited entries by the first word in each entry.  This is usually the author's last name or the first word of the title if no author is listed.  

There are two special cases:

1.) Ignore articles (A, An, The, or the equivalent in other languages) when alphabetizing entries. 
(e.g. Treat the entry "The Sound of Heavy Metal." as if it began with the letter S.)

2.) If a Works Cited entry begins with a numeral, alphabetize the entry as if the numeral were spelled out. 
(e.g. alphabetize "3 Ways to Add Music to PowerPoint" under "T" for Three.)

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Sample Works Cited Page

Works Cited

Armstrong, Billie Joe.  Personal interview.  7 Mar. 2015. 

Clapp, Stephen. "Ma, Yo-Yo." World Book Advanced. 2016,

         worldbookonline.com/advanced/article?id=ar723988.

Macken, Bob, et al. The Rock Music Source Book. Anchor Books, 1980. 

Miranda, Lin-Manuel, and Jeremy McCarter. Hamilton: The Revolution : Being the Complete

         Libretto of the Broadway Musical, with a True Account of Its Creation, and Concise

         Remarks on Hip-Hop, the Power of Stories, and the New America. Melcher Media,

         2016.

Parsons, Hilary. "Re: GMU Jazz Festival." Received by Joe MacLennan, 28 Aug. 2014.

Phillips, Winifred. A Composer's Guide to Game Music.  MIT Press, 2014, Google

         Books, books.google.com/books?id=qebUAgAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Co

         mposer's+Guide+to+Game+Music&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjR3b34mIXOAhU

         INT4KHch9AzsQ6AEIHjAA#v=onepage&q=Composer's Guide to Game

         Music&f=false.

Rolling Stone. U2: The Ultimate Compendium of Interviews, Articles, Facts and Opinions

         from the Files of the Rolling Stone. Pan, 1995.

Thompson, Clive. "Rocking the House: Long Before Spotify and iTunes, the Phonograph

         Revolutionized the Way We Experience Music." Smithsonian, Jan.-Feb. 2016, 35+.

Witmer, Scott. Bookings & Gigs.. ABDO, 2010. 

---. Songwriting. ABDO, 2010.

 

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This page is under construction.  Check back for updates. 

While we are re-building this page, you may use this Citation Guide from Battlefield High School.

Special thanks to Battlefield librarian Ms. Tierney for providing this temporary resource to us.

Page under construction- check back for updates.

MLA Citation Format

compiled by Karen Tierney, M.L.I.S
Source: MLA Handbook, 8th Edition, 2016.

The “Core Elements” of an MLA 8 citation, along with their corresponding punctuation marks, 
include the following (in this order):

  1. Authors.
  2. Title of the source.
  3. Title of container,
  4. Other contributors,
  5. Version,
  6. Numbers,
  7. Publisher,
  8. Publication date,
  9. Location.

The appropriate punctuation mark will follow each core element, unless it is the final piece. In this case, 
the punctuation mark would be a period.  

To learn about how to format each core element of an MLA 8 citation, check outEasyBib's MLA 8 Guide
For additional online help with citations, use the Purdue OWL MLA Guide
Working on an annotated bibliography? Look here for help.

MLA Works Cited Page Proofreading Checklist

PRINT RESOURCES
Note: Audio books and eBooks (not from a database) are cited the same way as a print book.

Book (1 Author)
Book (2 Authors)
Book (3+ Authors)
Book (No Author)
Book (Corporate)
Book (Translator/Compiler)
Book (Editor, No Author)
Poem or Short Story in a Book
Article from a Reference Book (Encyclopedia, Dictionary, etc.)
Article from a periodical (journal, magazine,or newspaper)
Reprinted article originally from a scholarly journal
Two or more works by the same author
Reproduction of a painting or sculpture in a book
WEB RESOURCES

Ebook from a database
Article from a database
Entire website
Online encyclopedia
YouTube video
Typical web pages
E-mail (including E-mail interviews)
An Image (Including a Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph)from the web


ADDITIONAL MISCELLANEOUS RESOURCES
Interview conducted by the researcher
Film/Movie

Alphabetizing entries on a Works Cited page
Capitalization of titles
Sample Works Cited page

 Print Resources

Book by one author
Example: Schreiber, Joe. Perry's Killer Playlist. Houghton Mifflin, 2012. 

Explanation:

Author's last name, Author's first name and middle initial.  Title of Book
Name of publishing company, Copyright date.  

In-text citation: (Schreiber 62).
Special notes: Do not list titles (Dr., Sir, Saint, etc.) or degrees (PhD, MA, DDS, etc.) with names.Special name designations (Jr., III, etc.) appear after a comma, after the author's first or middle name whichever is the final name element. 
Use most recent publication date.  Omit throw-aways like Inc., Company, or Press. 

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Book by two authors
Example:

Miranda, Lin-Manuel, and Jeremy McCarter. Hamilton: The Revolution : Being the Complete Libretto of the Broadway Musical, with a True Account of Its Creation, and Concise Remarks on Hip-Hop, the Power of Stories, and the New America. Melcher Media, 2016.

Explanation:

Last name of author of book, First and middle names of author of book, and Full name of second  author. Title of Book. Name of publishing company, Copyright date. 

In-text citation:
(Miranda and McCarter 43).
Special notes: DO NOT reverse the order of the second author's name. Also, list the authors as they are listed on the title page. DO NOT reorder them alphabetically.

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Book by three or more authors
Example:

Macken, Bob, et al. The Rock Music Source Book. Anchor Books, 1980
    

Explanation:

First author's last name, First author's first and middle names, et al. Title of BookName of publishing company, Copyright date.

In-text citation:
(Macken et al. 124).
Special notes: Et al. is an abbreviation for the Latin et alii, which means for "and others."

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Book having no author
Example:

Webster's New Biographical Dictionary.  Merriam-Webster, 1983.

Explanation:

Title of Book.  Name of publishing company, Copyright date.

In-text citation:
(Webster's 235).
Special notes: Only use the first significant word of the title should be used in the parenthetical reference. Omit articles a, an, the.

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Book by a corporate author
Example:

Rolling Stone. U2: The Ultimate Compendium of Interviews, Articles, Facts and Opinions from the Files of the Rolling Stone. Pan, 1995.

Explanation:

Name of corporation that authored the book.  Title of Book.  Name of publishing company, Copyright date.  
 

In-text citation:

(Rolling Stone 152)
Special notes:
Well-known abbreviations may be used to shorten the name of the corporation (ie. Natl for National) in In-Text citations.

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Book with a translator or compiler
Example:

Cervantes, Saavedra M. Don Quixote. Translated by Edith Grossman, Ecco, 2003.

In-text citation:
(Cervantes 132).
Explanation:

Author's last name, Author's first name and middle initial. Title of the Work. Translated by Full name of Translator, Name of publishing company, Copyright date. 

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Book with an editor (no author given)
Example:

Howard, Keith, editor. Korean Pop Music: Riding the Wave.  Global Oriental, 2006.

Explanation:

Last name of book editor, First name of book editor, editor.  Title of Book. Name of publishing company, Copyright date. 

Special notes: Do not abbreviate the word editor. If the book has multiple editors, use editors. and follow the rules for writing author names. 
In-text citation:
(Howard 27).

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Poem or Short Story in a Book 
 Examples:   St. Vincent Millay, Edna. "Dirge Without Music." Selected Poems, edited by Colin Falck, Perennial Classics, 1991, p.79.

Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues" The Oxford Book of American Short Stories, edited by Joyce Carol Oates, Oxford University Press, 1992, pp. 409-39.
 Explanation:  Author. Title of work. Title of Book, editor, publisher, date of publication, location.
 Special Notes: Do not abbreviate the word editor. If the book has multiple editors, use editors. and follow the rules for writing author names. 
 In-text citation  (St. Vincent).
(Baldwin 411).

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 Article from a Reference Book (Encyclopedia, Dictionary, etc.)
 Examples:   "Sforzando." Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. 11th ed., 2003.

"Moody Blues, The." Baker's Student Encyclopedia of Music, 1999.
 Explanation:  Title of article (entry). Title of Reference Book, edition (if listed), date.
 Special notes:  If the reference book is organized alphabetically, do not list the volume or page number.
 In-text citation: ("Sforzando").
("Moody").

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Article from a Periodical (journal, magazine, or newspaper)
Examples:

Thompson, Clive. "Rocking the House: Long Before Spotify and iTunes, the Phonograph Revolutionized the Way We Experience Music." Smithsonian, Jan.-Feb. 2016, 35+.

Jackson, Jennifer. "Purdue Bands and Orchestra's Annual Jazz on the Hill May 1." Purdue Exponent [West Lafayette], 25 Apr. 2016, p. 4.

Explanation:

Last name of author of article, First and middle names of author of article. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical, Date of periodical, page numbers on which the article appears in the periodical. 

In-text citation:
(Thompson 35).
Special notes: If the newspaper is a less well-known or local publication, include the city name in brackets after the title of the newspaper.

The format of the date of the periodical is day first then the month (or abbreviation of the month; consult MLA for correct format) then the year. If there is more than one edition available for that date (as in an early and late edition of a newspaper), identify the edition after the article title.

If the pages on which the article appears are not consecutive, print the beginning page number followed by a + (ie. 12+)

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Reprinted article originally from a scholarly journal (use this format for literary criticism articles)
Example:

Matus, Jill.  "Song of Solomon: Raising Dead Fathers."  Toni Morrison, Manchester University Press, 1998, pp. 72-84. Novels for Students, edited by Marie Rose Napierkowski and Deborah A. Stanley, vol.8, Gale, 2000, pp. 232-6.

Explanation:

Last name of author of article, First and middle names of author of article. "Title of Article." Title of Journal in which Original Article was Published Originally, Publisher of original journal, Date original article was published, Page numbers on which article originally appeared in journal. Name of book in which article was reprinted. edited by Full name of editor of book in which reprint appears, vol. Volume number in which reprinted article appears, Name of book publishing company, Copyright date, Page numbers on which reprinted article appears. 

In-text citation:
(Matus 234).
Special notes: Vol. is an abbreviation for "Volume." The parenthetical reference cites the page numbers for the reprinted article, not the original publication source. In print sources, a page number (preceded by p.) or range of page numbers (preceded by pp.) specifies the location of a text within a container.

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Two or more works by the same author
Example:

Witmer, Scott. Bookings & Gigs.. ABDO, 2010. 

---. Songwriting. ABDO, 2010.

In-text citation:
(Witmer, Bookings 52).
(Witmer, Songwriting 27).
Special Note: On a works cited page, the second work by the same author begins with three dashes and a period. This denotes that the second book was written by the author in the previous entry. When you have more than one work by the same author, you have to distinguish the works in the parenthetical references by adding title abbreviations.

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Reproduction of a Painting or Sculpture in a Book
Example:

Picasso, Pablo.  "The Old Guitarist." 1903, Master Paintings in the Art Institute of Chicago,edited by Laura J. Kozitka and Susan F. Rossen,  Art Institute of Chicago, 1998,  p. 108.

Explanation:

Last name of artist, First name and middle initial or name of artist.  "Title of the Work of Art."  Date work of art was created. Title of Book,  Name of Editor(s),  Publisher, year of publication,  Page number or plate number.

In-text citation:
(Picasso).
Special notes: If you know the date the work was created, it is included after the title.

Provide the name of the institution that houses the artwork followed by the location of the institution if the location is not listed in the name of the institution (e.g. Museo del Prado, Madrid.)

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Online Resources

eBook from a Database
Examples:
Phillips, Winifred. A Composer's Guide to Game Music.  MIT Press, 2014, Google Books,
 books.google.com/books?id=qebUAgAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Composer's+Guide
+to+Game+Music&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjR3b34mIXOAhUINT4KHch9AzsQ6AEIHjAA
#v=onepage&q=Composer's Guide to Game Music&f=false.
Rowell, Rebecca.  YouTube: The Company and It's Founders. ABDO, 2011.  MackinVIA.mackinvia.com/?bookid=2881504.

 

Explanation:

Author's last name, Author's first name and middle initial.  Title of book. Name of publishing 
company, Copyright date, Name of Database or Website.  DOI, URL, or web address.

In-text citation:
(Phillips 122).
(Rowell 32-45).
Special notes: The dates are in day, month, year order.   Do not abbreviate May, June, and July.  
Abbreviate September as Sept.  Abbreviate all other months to the first three letters.  

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Article from a database
 

Koga, Midori, and Jun Nogami. "Developing an Awareness of Core Balance in Music Performance." 
American Music Teacher, Aug.-Sept. 2012, pp. 24+. Fine Arts and Music Collection, doi: GALE|A299885757.

Example:

 

 

Greenblatt, Alan. "Future of the Music Industry." CQ Researcher, vol. 13, no. 41, 21 Nov. 2003, pp. 989-1012, doi: cqresrre2003112100.

Explanation:

Author. "Title." Title of container, Other contributors (translators or editors), Version (edition), Number(vol. and/or no.), Publisher, Publication Date. Name of Database, Location (pages, paragraphs and/or URL, DOI or permalink).

In-text 
citation:
(Koga par.7)
(Webb par. 5)
Special notes: The dates are in day, month, year order.   Do not abbreviate May, June, and July.
Abbreviate September as Sept.  Abbreviate all other months to the first three letters.  

If page numbers are not available, use par. or pars. to denote paragraph numbers. 
Use these in place of the p. or pp. abbreviation.

CQ Researcher 
is the original container for the article, therefore you do not have to name it twice 
in the citation.

URLs define the location of online material. Use digital object identifiers (DOIs),  or 
permalinks when available (such as the Gale Document Number).

Break hyperlinks when adding them to your citation. The URL should not begin on a separate line. You will have to break the text to fit the format.

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Entire Website
Examples:
Hawk, Andy. The Train Wreck Endings. andyhawk.com. Accessed 22 Apr. 2015.
Purple Planet Royalty Free Music. purple-planet.com. Accessed 2 Aug. 2016.
Society for Music Theory. University of Chicago Department of Music, 2012, societymusictheory.org. Accessed 12 July 2016.

 

Explanation:

Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Version number, Name of        institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource 
creation (if available), URL, DOI or permalink. Date of access (if applicable).

In-text citation:
(Hawk)
(Purple)
(Society)
Special notes: The dates are in day, month, year order.   Do not abbreviate May, June, and July.  
Abbreviate September as Sept.  Abbreviate all other months to the first three letters.  

URLs define the location of online material. Use digital object identifiers (DOIs) or 
permalinks when available. 

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Entry in an online encyclopedia
Examples:

Clapp, Stephen. "Ma, Yo-Yo." World Book Advanced. 2016, worldbookonline.com/advanced/article?id=ar723988.
 
"Scala, La." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. Columbia University Press, 2016. General Reference Center GOLDgo.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA69231488&v=2.1&u=va_s_075_0290&it=r&p=GRGM&sw=w&asid=
2a89933f2666e750bf8d7672f361b6c8
.

Explanation:

Last name of the author of the article, First and middle names of author of the article.  "Title of the article."  Title of the online encyclopedia.  Name of Publisher, date of publication.  DOI, URL, or web address.

In-text citations:
(Clapp).
(Scala par.2).
Special notes: A publisher's name may be omitted in the case of a Web site with a title that is essentially the same as the publisher. 

If page numbers are not available, use par. or pars. to denote paragraph numbers. Use these in place of the p. or pp. abbreviation.

URLs define the location of online material. Use digital object identifiers (DOIs) or permalinks when available.

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YouTube video 
Examples:
 "BHS Marching Bobcats @ JMU 1st Place Quad A17 Oct 2015." YouTube, The Newman Files, 18 Oct. 2015, youtube.com/watch?v=-cQo0RehjlA.
 "Librarians Do GaGa." YouTube, Athenasbanquet, 27 May 2010, youtube.com/watch?v=a_uzUh1VT98.
Saint-Saens, Camille. "La Danse Macabre." YouTube, DistantMirrors, 7 May 2012, youtube.com/watch?v=YyknBTm_YyM.

 

Explanation:

Author of content.  Name of Video.  YouTube,  Name of uploader, Date of postURL.

In-text citation:
(BHS).
(Librarians).
(Saint-Saens).
Special notes: If the author’s name is the same as the uploader, only cite the author once. If the author is different from the uploader, cite the author’s name before the title.

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Typical Web Pages
Examples:
Nevue, David.  “How to Copyright Music." Music Biz Academy, Midnight Rain ProductionsMar. 2010, musicbizacademy.com/internet/how2copyright.htm.
"How to Add Music to PowerPoint."  WikiHow. Jan 2016, wikihow.com/Add-Music-to-PowerPoint.
Explanation:

Last name of author of page, First and middle names of author of article. "Title of page." Title of 
Web site, 
Date Web page was last updated, DOI, URL or web address.

In-text citations:
(Nevue).
("How to").
Special notes: The Publisher or website sponsor is usually found at the bottom of the page. The publisher's name may be omitted if it is essentially the same as the title of the website, or if the publisher is not involved in producing the works it makes available (eg. YouTube or WordPress).

The dates are in day, month, year order.   Do not abbreviate May, June, and July.  Abbreviate September as Sept.  Abbreviate all other months to the first three letters.  

In-Text citations using titles, such as ("How to Add Music to PowerPoint") can be shortened to a piece of the title  ("How to") as long as the resulting parenthetical is unique from other sources used in the paper.

You will not have page numbers in your parenthetical citations unless they are given.  This is unlikely.

URLs define the location of online material. Use digital object identifiers (DOIs) or permalinks when available. 

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E-mail (including E-mail interviews)
Examples:

Casel, Nitanju Bolade. "Re: Sweet Honey in the Rock." Received by Francis Vogel, 10 May 2016.

Parsons, Hilary. "Re: GMU Jazz Festival." Received by Joe MacLennan, 28 Aug. 2014.

Explanation:

Last name of author, First name and middle initial of author. "Subject Line of Message." Received by First and Last Name of Recipient, date message was sent.

Special notes: Use standard capitalization.
In-text citations:
(Casel).
(Parsons).

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An Image (Including a Painting, Sculpture or Photograph) from the Web
Example:

Barbey, Bruno. Gnawa musicians. 01 Jan. 2004, Magnum Photos,elibrary.bigchalk.com/elibweb
/elib/do/documentset=search&searchType=natural&groupid=1&requestid=lib_standard&resultid=
1&edition=&ts=F6C3331FE0625878CC64616AA0A29195_1470668817543&start=1&publicationId
=&urn=urn%3Abigchalk%3AUS%3BBCLib%3Bdocument%3B124085303#citation. Accessed 8 Aug. 2016.

Richard J. The Buskers. 4 June 2016, National Geographic, http://yourshot.nationalgeographic.com/photos/8485419/. Accessed 8 Aug. 2016.

Sundogak. "The B-52s Backdrop Wallpaper." 2013, Fanart.tv, fanart.tv/artist/127f591a-7e27-4435-92db-0780f219f3a1/b-52s-the/. Accessed 17 Jun. 2016.

Explanation:

Last name of artist, First name and middle initial or name of artist.  Title of the work.  Date the work of art was created, Name of institution that houses or owns the work (if available). Name of website or database, DOI, URL or web address.  Date website was accessed. 

In-text citations:
(Barbey).
(Richard).
(Sundogak).
Special Notes
Provide the artist's name, the work of art italicized, the date of creation, the institution and city where the work is housed. Follow this initial entry with the name of the Website in italics, the medium of publication, and the date of access.

If the work is cited on the web only, then provide the name of the artist, the title of the work, the medium
of the work, and then follow the citation format for a website. 

If the work is posted via a username, use that username for the author (see 2nd and 3rd examples).

Images from royalty free clip art, such as the clip art available in Microsoft Word or Power Point, do not need to be cited. Works in the public domain technically do not need to be cited either, but doing so can help your readers find the original work so that they may better understand your references.

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Additional Miscellaneous Resources
 

Interview conducted by the researcher
Examples:
Armstrong, Billie Joe.  Personal interview.  7 Mar. 2015. 
Williams, John.  Telephone interview.  23 Aug. 2009.

 

Explanation:

Last name, first name of person interviewed.  Kind of interview.  Date of interview.

In-text citations:
(Armstrong).
(Williams).
Special notes: The dates are in day, month, year order.   Do not abbreviate May, June, and July.  Abbreviate September as Sept.  Abbreviate all other months to the first three letters.  

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Capitalization of Titles
Most words in a title are capitalized, and the first word is always capitalized, but…
DO NOT Capitalize these four categories of words if they appear in the middle of a title:

1.) articles: (a, an, the)  (e.g. Battle of the Bands)

2.) prepositions: (such as above, through, in, out, of, around, etc.) (e.g. Getting the Most out of Makerspaces to Make Musical Instruments)

3.) coordinating conjunctions: (and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet)  (e.g. Beautiful Music for Ugly Children)

4.) the word to as part of a verb infinitive: (to Run, to Eat, etc.) (e.g. Learn to Speak Music)


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Film/Movie
Example:

Mr. Holland's Opus. Directed by Stephen Herek, performances by Richard Dreyfuss, Glenne Headly, Jay Thomas, and Olympia Dukakis, Polygram, 1999.

Explanation:

Title of film.  Dir. Director's name.  Perf. Names of key performers.  Name of production studio.  Copyright date of film. 

In-text citation:
(Mr. Holland's).
Special notes: Include the name of the director, the film studio or distributor, and the release year.

If you wish to write about a movie or T.V. show without focusing on particular actors or directors, begin with the film’s name. If you wish to list multiple participants, you can still do so.

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Alphabetizing Entries on a Works Cited Page
In most cases, alphabetize Works Cited entries by the first word in each entry.  This is usually the author's last name or the first word of the title if no author is listed.  

There are two special cases:

1.) Ignore articles (A, An, The, or the equivalent in other languages) when alphabetizing entries. 
(e.g. Treat the entry "The Sound of Heavy Metal." as if it began with the letter S.)

2.) If a Works Cited entry begins with a numeral, alphabetize the entry as if the numeral were spelled out. 
(e.g. alphabetize "3 Ways to Add Music to PowerPoint" under "T" for Three.)

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Sample Works Cited Page

Works Cited

Armstrong, Billie Joe.  Personal interview.  7 Mar. 2015. 

Clapp, Stephen. "Ma, Yo-Yo." World Book Advanced. 2016,

         worldbookonline.com/advanced/article?id=ar723988.

Macken, Bob, et al. The Rock Music Source Book. Anchor Books, 1980. 

Miranda, Lin-Manuel, and Jeremy McCarter. Hamilton: The Revolution : Being the Complete

         Libretto of the Broadway Musical, with a True Account of Its Creation, and Concise

         Remarks on Hip-Hop, the Power of Stories, and the New America. Melcher Media,

         2016.

Parsons, Hilary. "Re: GMU Jazz Festival." Received by Joe MacLennan, 28 Aug. 2014.

Phillips, Winifred. A Composer's Guide to Game Music.  MIT Press, 2014, Google

         Books, books.google.com/books?id=qebUAgAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Co

         mposer's+Guide+to+Game+Music&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjR3b34mIXOAhU

         INT4KHch9AzsQ6AEIHjAA#v=onepage&q=Composer's Guide to Game

         Music&f=false.

Rolling Stone. U2: The Ultimate Compendium of Interviews, Articles, Facts and Opinions

         from the Files of the Rolling Stone. Pan, 1995.

Thompson, Clive. "Rocking the House: Long Before Spotify and iTunes, the Phonograph

         Revolutionized the Way We Experience Music." Smithsonian, Jan.-Feb. 2016, 35+.

Witmer, Scott. Bookings & Gigs.. ABDO, 2010. 

---. Songwriting. ABDO, 2010.

 

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